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Glossary of Printing Terms

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Absorbency - the capacity a paper has for accepting liquids, like the inks or water used to run offset lithographic presses. See also ink absorption, ink holdout.

Acid-free Paper - paper manufactured on a paper machine with the wet-end chemistry controlled to a neutral or slightly alkaline pH. See also alkaline papermaking, archival, permanence, pH, wet end.

Acid Resist - an acid-proof protective coating applied to metal plates prior to etching designs thereon. Bichromated solutions employed in photoengraving as sensitizers provide acid resist through the action of light on sensitized surface.

Accordion Fold - a term used for two or more parallel folds which open like an accordion

Actual Weight - the true weight of any volume of paper. The actual weight of paper is used to determine both purchase price and shipping costs. See also basic size, basis weight, weight.

Additive Primaries - red, green and blue. When lights of these colors are added together, they produce the sensation of white light. Computer monitors are examples of additive primaries at work.

Against the Grain - folding or feeding paper at right angles to the grain direction of the paper. See also grain.

Alkaline Papermaking - the manufacture of paper under alkaline conditions using additives, caustic fillers like calcium and neutral size. Alkaline paper is usually used where aging resistance is desired. It’s the logical choice for documents, books, and maps. Almost all premium papers are made with an alkaline process, so they’re long-lasting and well-suited for permanent record applications. See also acid-free paper, archival paper, calcium carbonate, lignin, papermaking, permanence, pH, sizing.

Alum - also called hydrated aluminum sulfate or papermaker’s alum. A papermaking chemical that’s typically used when adding rosin size to pulp, alum imparts water-resistant properties to paper. In practical terms, it keeps paper from clinging to the presses, see also rosin, sizing.

Anti-offset Spray - dry or liquid spray used on press to prevent wet ink from transferring from the top of one sheet to the bottom of the next.

Antique Finish - a term describing the surface, usually on book and cover papers, that has a natural rough finish.

Aqueous Coating - a water-based coating applied after printing, either while the paper is still on press (“in line”), or after it’s off press. An aqueous coating usually gives a gloss, dull, or matte finish, and helps prevent the underlying ink from rubbing off. Unlike UV coating or a varnish, an aqueous coating will accept ink-jet printing, making it a natural choice for jobs that require printing addresses for mass mailings. see also coated paper, finishing, UV coating, varnish.

Archival Paper - alkaline paper that won’t deteriorate over time. Archival papers must meet national standard for permanence: they must be acid-free with an alkaline pH of 7.5 to 8.5; include 2% calcium carbonate as an alkaline reserve; and not contain any groundwood or unbleached wood fiber. The expected life of archival paper is more than 100 years. see also acid-free, alkaline papermaking, permanence, pH.


Backbone - the back of a bound book connecting the two covers; also called spine.

Backing Up - printing the reverse side of a sheet already printed on one side.

Back Lining - a paper or fabric adhering to the backbone or spine in a hardcover book.

Basic Size - the customary sheet size used to establish the basis weight of a ream (500 sheets) of a given grade of paper. Standard basic sizes vary by paper grade. For example, the basic size of book paper is 25” x 38”, while the basic size of cover stock is 20” x 26”. See also basis weight, weight.

Basis Weight - the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard (basic size). Each major paper grade, like cover, bond, or offset, has its own basic sheet size, which determines its basis weight. For example, the basic size of book paper is 25” x 38” for 500 sheets; therefore, 500 sheets of 70 lb. offset book paper in 25” x 38” will actually weigh 70 pounds. see also basic size, ream weight, weight.

Bearers - the flat surfaces or rings at the ends of cylinders that come in contact with each other during printing (on American made presses), and serve as a basis for determining how much packing is required. see also packing.

Bimetal Plate - a plate used for long runs in which the printing image base is copper or brass and the non-printing area is aluminum, stainless steel or chromium. See also plate.

Binding - various methods of securing folded sections together and or fastening them to a cover, to form single copies of a book. Fastening papers together for easy reading, transport, and protection. Papers may be bound together with a variety of materials like wire, thread, glue, and/or plastic combs. see also finishing, folding, imposition, scoring, signature.

Blade-coating - a method of coating paper and paperboard using a flexible blade to control the amount of coating applied to the paper. The coating is made of pigments, additives, and adhesives. Blade-coating can take place either on the papermaking machine or on an off-machine coater. While paper may be coated on one side (C1S) or both sides (C2S), blade-coated papers are usually calendered. This helps create a compressed sheet with a glossy surface, reduced bulk, and enhanced printing properties. see also bulk, calendering, clay, coated paper.

Blanket - a fabric-reinforced sheet of rubber on offset presses to transfer the ink impression from the plate onto the paper.

Bleaching - a chemical treatment used to whiten and purify pulp. Bleached pulp is known for being strong and durable. see also Elemental chlorine free (ECF), OD100 process, papermaking, pulp.

Bleach Filtrate Recycling (BFR) Process - patented process (Champion Papers) that recycles process wastes from the bleach plant instead of discharging them to the waste water treatment facility. see also elemental chlorine free (ECF), OD100 process.

Bleed - an image or printed color that runs off the trimmed edge of a page. Bleeding one or more edges of a printed page generally increases both the amount of paper needed and the overall production cost of a printed job. Bleeds are created by trimming the page after the printing process.

Blind Embossing - stamping raised letters or images into paper using both pressure and a die, but without using foil or ink to add color to the raised areas. Braille is an example of blind embossing. See also embossing.

Blind Folio - a page number not printed on the page.

Blind Image - an image which has lost it’s ink receptivity and fails to print.

Blue-Line - photographic proof made from flats for checking accuracy, layout and imposition before plates are made. see also blueprint, dylux, proof.

Blueprint - another word for blue-line. see also blue-line, dylux, proof.

Body - a term referring to the viscosity, or consistency of an ink. E.g. an ink with too much body is stiff. see also viscosity.

Boiler Plate - (old style) repetitive blocks of type that are picked up and included routinely without recreating them.

Bond Paper - a type of office reprographic paper, widely used for letterheads and business forms. Bond papers are characterized by strength, durability, and performance. They are manufactured with a basic size of 17” x 22”. see also basic size, electronic printing, office reprographic paper, xerography.

Bonding Strength - the internal strength of a paper; the ability of the fibers within a paper to hold to one another. Bonding strength measures the ability of the paper to hold together on the printing press. Good bonding strength prevents fibers from coming loose (“picking”). see also picking, pick out, sizing.

Book Paper - a type of offset paper with a basic size of 25” x 38”. The primary applications for these products are book publishing, commercial printing, direct mail, technical documents, and manuals. see also basic size, offset papers, text papers.

Brightness - the reflectivity of pulp, paper, or paperboard under test conditions, using a specially calibrated measuring instrument. If paper lacks brightness it will absorb too much light, so little will reflect back through the ink. see also fluorescent dye, refractiveness, whiteness.

Bristol Paper - solid or laminated heavyweight paper made to a caliper thickness of .006” or higher. Bristols are generally used for tags, covers, and file folders and have a basic size of 24.5” x 30.5”. see also basic size, cover paper, tag paper.

Broadside - any large advertising circular.

Brochure - a pamphlet bound in booklet form. See also pamphlet.

Bronzing - printing with a sizing ink, then applying bronze powder while still wet to produce a metallic lustre. see also sizing.

Bulk - the thickness of a stack of paper, technically measured as the thickness of a specified number of sheets under a specified pressure. For example, using the measurement of an inch, it may take less than 100 bulky bristol sheets to make an inch-deep pile. On the other hand, it might take hundreds of sheets to make an inch of a lower-bulk text paper. Bulk is a key factor where thickness or the illusion of substance is a desired effect. see also caliper, thickness.

Burn - to expose photo sensitive media to light. i.e. Burning a negative, dylux proof, or a printing plate. Also, to dodge and “burn” a photo print (makes the image darker in an area that is burned, ads detail to lightly exposed areas)

Burnishing - creating a polished finish on paper by rubbing with stone or hand smooth surface.


C1S - paper that is coated on one side only (coated one side).

C2S - paper that is coated on both sides (coated two sides).

Calcium Carbonate - CaCO3, a naturally occurring substance found in a variety of sources, including chalk, limestone, marble, oyster shells, and scale from boiled hard water. Used as a filler in the alkaline paper manufacturing process, calcium carbonate improves several important paper characteristics, like smoothness, brightness, opacity, and affinity for ink. It also reduces paper acidity. It is a key ingredient in today’s paper coatings. see also alkaline papermaking, ingredients of paper.

Calendering - the process of finishing a sheet of dried paper by pressing it between the highly polished metal cylinders of a calender “stack”. The calendar smoothes the paper by compression. see also finish, papermaking, smoothness, super calendering.

Caliper - the thickness of a single sheet of paper, as measured with a sensitive tool called a micrometer, and expressed in units of thousandths of an inch. Caliper is a critical measure of uniformity. Excessive variation in caliper can lead to print variation, undesirable visual effects, and uneven stretch or press-feeding problems. It can also create problems in folding and binding. see also bulk, thickness.

Camera Ready - type and/or artwork that is ready to be photographed without any alterations.

Carbon Tissue - a pigmented gelatin coating on a paper backing which, when sensitized with potassium bichromate and exposed to a continuous-tone positive and either an overall screen or a screen positive or the same subject, becomes the resist for etching gravure plates and/or cylinders. see also resist, etching, gravure.

Case - the covers of a hardbound book.

Case Binding - book binding using a “hard cover” or “case”. Pages are “smythe sewn” into the case. see binding.

Cast-coating - paper produced with a surface that is a reasonably accurate replication of some other surface. To manufacture cast-coated paper, a paper web with wet or moistened coating is brought into contact with a polished chrome drum surface, which is replicated onto the coated sheet. There are two basic cast-coating technologies: the “wet process”, invented and developed by Champion in 1937, and the “re-wet” process. Both methods remain in today. The advantage of the “wet process,” used to manufacture Champion’s Kromekote, is that the sheet is both smooth and absorbent, not just smooth, allowing for excellent ink transfer with minimal pressure. Cast-coated papers allow inks to set and dry quickly, making wet trapping easier and minimizing dot gain. In general, cast-coated papers uniquely combine a superior flat surface with excellent ink receptivity, making them the best of printing surfaces, regardless of the type of printing process. see also coated-paper, dot gain, finish, smoothness, wet trap.

Catching Up - a term which indicates that the non-image areas of a press plate are starting to take ink or scum. see also scum.

Cellulose Fiber - the main component of the walls of all plant cells, cellulose gives plants their structural support and makes plant material fibrous. Both cotton and wood fibers are mostly made up of cellulose. see also fiber, ingredients of paper, paper, pulping wood.

Chalking - a term which refers to improper drying of ink. Pigment actually dusts off because the vehicle has been absorbed too rapidly into the paper. see also pigment, vehicle.

Chase - a frame of steel, cast or wrought iron in which type, dies, or knives are locked up for letterpress printing.

Chemical Pulping - manufacturing pulp by pressure-cooking wood or other raw fibrous material into its component parts with solutions of various chemical liquors. The predominant chemical pulping process is the sulfate (kraft) process. see also kraft, papermaking, pulping wood.

Choke - (Choking) When trapping color in an area that has another color inside so the choked color overlaps, also spreading.

Chromalin - a color proofing system, usually the final color proof before going to the press. This is a high quality proof and all corrections and alterations should be made prior to this.

Clay - a naturally occurring substance commonly used in the paper industry. Clay is used as a filler and as a coating ingredient. By adding clay, papermakers can improve a paper’s smoothness, brightness, opacity, and affinity for ink. see also additives, coated paper, filler, ingredients of paper, opacity.

CMYK - abbreviation for the four colors used in process printing: Cyan (blue), Magenta (red), Yellow and Black.

Coated Paper - paper with an outer layer of coating applied to one or both sides. The coating may be added while the paper is still moving through the papermaking machine, or after it comes off the machine. Coated papers are available in a variety of finishes, like gloss, dull, and matte. They tend to have good ink holdout and minimal dot gain, which can be especially important for recreating sharp, bright images, black and white halftones, and four-color process images. The smooth surface of coated papers also helps to reflect light evenly. see also cast-coating, clay, dot gain, dull coated, four-color process gloss, halftone, ink holdout, matte coated, off-machine coating.

Coating - in platemaking, the light sensitive polymer or mixture applied to a metal plate. In printing, an emulsion, varnish or lacquer applied over a printed surface to give it added protection. see also emulsion, lacquer, polymer, varnish.

Cold Color - a color which is on the bluish side.

Collate - arranging pages into their proper order, as in a book. see also gather.

Collating Marks - black step-marks printed on the back of folded sheets, to facilitate collating and checking of the sequence of book signatures.

Collotype - a screenless printing process of the planographic ink-water type in which the plates are coated with bichromated gelatin, exposed to continuous-tone negatives, and are printed on lithographic presses with special dampening. see also bichromate, lithographic, planographic.

Color Correction - any method such as masking, dot-etching, re-etching, and scanning, used to improve color rendition. see also dot-etching, masking, re-etching.

Color Filter - a sheet of dyed glass, gelatin, plastic or dyed gelatin cemented between glass plates, used in photography to absorb certain colors and permit better rendition of others. see also filter.

Color Key - a printer’s proof usually used for viewing the individual layers of C,M,Y & K, four sheets of colored acetate, for examining the quality of process color separations. Great for use when print 4-color process on a one or two color press.

Color Proof - any pre-press proofs intended for color matching or representation. See also pre-press proof, progressive proof.

Colorcurve System - a color matching system based on light reflectance curves rather than on ink formulations. It is intended to coordinate colors across a variety of surfaces and materials and to reduce metamerism. see also match color, metamerism, Pantone Matching System, Toyo.

Colorfastness - having color that won’t run when wet, and won’t fade in bright light.

Cotton Paper - paper with a minimum cotton fiber content of 25%, and a maximum fiber content of 100%. When fiber other than cotton is used, the balance comes from wood pulp. Cotton pulp is made from rags or clippings from textile mills, raw cotton, and cotton linters. Cotton papers are primarily used as writing papers (i.e. corporate stationery).

Cover Paper - heavier, generally stiffer paper commonly used for book covers, folders, greeting cards, business cards, and brochures. Uncoated cover papers generally match the color and finish of corresponding text papers. Also referred to as Cover Stock. The basic size of cover stock is 20”x26”. see also basic size, text paper.

Cracking - Delamination.

Creep - result of added thickness of folded sheets being behind one another in a folded signature. Outer edges of sheets creep away from back most fold as more folded sheets are inserted inside the middle.

Crop Mark - markings at edges of original copy or on the guide sheet to indicate the area desired in reproduction with negative or plate trimmed (cropped) at the markings.

Cross-over - elements that cross page boundaries and land on two consecutive pages.

Curl - the waviness of a sheet of paper generally seen along its edges. Curling is generally the result of physical stresses or changes in humidity, and may occur at the paper mill, in the pressroom, on press, or after binding. Paper tends to curl along, rather than across, the grain of the paper. Recycled and recycled content papers have less of a tendency to curl than virgin fiber papers because their fibers are shorter. see also grain, relative humidity.

Cut-size - writing or business papers that are cut to a finished size of 8.5” x 11”, 8.5” x 14”, or 11” x 17”. Cut-size papers, are usually packed in reams of 500 sheets before leaving the mill.

Cutter - machine used for accurately cutting stacks of paper to desired dimensions. Also trims out final bound books top size (soft cover).

Cutting Die - sharp edged device usually made of steel rule, to cut shapes out of paper, cardboard, etc.

Cylinder Machine - a type of papermaking machine. Wire covered cylinders are rotated through a vat of pulp, and paper is formed as the water drains from the cylinder. Cylinder machines are mostly used for manufacturing paperboard. Multi-cylinder machines are capable or producing multi-layered paperboard (one layer for each cylinder). see also paperboard, papermaking.


Dandy Roll - a wire mesh cylinder used to smooth the top of paper as it forms. Enhancing both surface smoothness and formation. The dandy roll may also carry a design, which will create a watermark, identifying the sheet. see also laid finish, papermaking, watermark.

Debossing - pressing letters or illustrations into a sheet of paper using a metal or plastic die to create a depressed (debossed) image. see also embossing.

Deckle Edge - the feathery edge on a sheet of paper, created as the paper machine sprays a stream of water or a jet of air across the paper as it’s being formed (while still wet). Deckle edges can also be created after the paper is made, using a die. This method creates a less feathery, harder-edged deckle.

Deinking - removing ink and other finishing materials, like coatings, sizings, and adhesives from printed paper. The complex deinking process is what makes recycling paper difficult and ultimately adds to the cost of a recycled sheet of paper. To produce high-quality recycled or recycled content papers for printing and writing, the deinking process needs to be thorough. The goal is to end up with reusable fiber that has few impurities, since impurities lower the quality of a reycyled sheet and can sometimes damage equipment in the papermaking and printing process. Modern offset and flexographic ink, photocopier and laser printing “ink,” ultraviolet and thermography coatings, and adhesives make it increasingly difficult to deink paper. see also bleaching, flotation, pulping wood, recycled paper.

Densitometer - an instrument used throughout a print run to measure the optical density of ink on paper.

Density - the weight of a sheet of paper as compared to its bulk. For example, a paper that weighs more than another paper but is thinner has a higher density. Compacting the fibers creates a denser paper. see also bulk, weight.

Die - cutting designs, letters or putter into metal (mostly brass) for stamping book covers or embossing.

Die-cutting - using a formed, metal-edged die to make a precision cut, or to cut shapes into a piece of paper.

Dispersion - see deinking

DPI (dot per inch) - the number of dots that fit horizontally and vertically into a one-inch measure. Generally, the more dots per inch, the more detail is captured, and the sharper the resulting image. see also halftone, lines per inch (LPI), screen.

Dot Gain - darkening of halftone image due to ink absorption in paper causing halftone dots to enlarge.

Drop Folio - page number printed at foot of page.

Dry Offset - process in which a metal plate is etched to a depth of 0.15 mm (0.006 in), making a right-reading relief plate, printed on the offset blanket and then transferred to the paper without the use of water.

Dry Trap - a layer of wet ink being applied over a previous layer of dry ink in a separate run of the printing press. Dry trapping usually produces sharper images than wet trapping because subsequent layers of ink aren’t diluted by prior wet or damp layers. Dry trapping is also more expensive because the paper travels through the press more than once. see also trapping, wet trap.

Drying - the step in the papermaking process that brings the moisture content of paper to approximately 5%. This is done by moving the web of paper around a series of heated iron drums on the dry end of the paper machine. see also papermaking.

Dryography - waterless offset lithography. This printing process is able to use extremely fine line screens to produce a higher resolution printing. see also offset, waterless printing.

Dull Coated - a coated paper finish that falls between glossy and matte. see also coated paper, gloss, matte coated.

Dummy Model - resembling finished piece in every respect except that the pages and cover are blank. Used by the designer as a final check on the appearance and “feel” of the book as a guide for the size and position of elements on the jacket.

Duotone - a two-color halftone of the same image created with two screens, two plates, and two ink colors. Most halftones are one-color halftones, printed with black ink on white paper. By blending the black of the tiny ink dots and the white of the paper, the human eye sees shades of gray. Duotones are made by printing an image with two colors, generally using black and a second color. The full range of tones are printed black and the middle range of tones are printed in the second color. The result is a striking image with more richness and depth than a one-color halftone. The image can be further enhanced by printing a tritone or a quadratone. These are also reproductions of black and white images, perhaps with a touch of color. The cost of printing tritones or quadratones may be as high as or higher than four-color process printing. see also four-color process, halftone, quadratone, screen, tritone.

Dust - tiny, loose pieces of fiber, filler, and/or coating on paper. During printing, dust may adhere to the blanket and create imperfections by not allowing ink to reach the paper surface. see also hickey, jog.


Electronic Printing - a printing method that creates images using electrostatic charges, rather than by pressing ink onto a plate. Photocopiers, inkjet and laser printers are examples of electronic printing. see also electrophotography, printing methods, xerography.

Electrophotography - a printing process that uses principles of electricity and electrically-charged particles to create images. In photocopiers and laser printers, electric charges create the image on an electrophotographic surface that works as a printing plate. This surface is cleared after each image or copy is made, and is used over again for the next copy. see also electronic printing, printing process, xerography.

Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF) - the more common name for molecular chlorine free, and a bleaching that doesn’t use chlorine gas. see also bleaching, OD100 process, papermaking

Emboss - a process by which a die is used for raising an area of paper to create letterforms, shapes and textures. The die can be made of magnesium created from exposing light to the photographically sensitive surface of the magnesium and leaving only the form of the artwork to be pressed into paper. Brass can also be used. It is more expensive, being done by hand, but looks very good with beveled edges and fine detail. see also blind embossing, debossing.

Enamel - a general term referring to coated paper that has a higher basis weight than coated publication (magazine) paper, but a lower basis weight and caliper than coated cover paper. An example of enamel is Champion Kromekote Enamel. see also C1S, C2S, coated paper.

Engraving - a printing process using intaglio, or recessed plates. Made from steel or copper, engraving plates cost more than plates used in most other printing processes, such as lithography. Ink sits in the recessed wells of the plate while the printing press exerts force on the paper, pushing it into the wells and thus “collecting” the ink. The pressure creates raised letters and images on the front of the page and indentations on the back. This process is popular with law firm stationery. The raised lettering effect of engraving can be simulated using a less costly process, called thermography. see also intaglio, plate, printing process, thermography.

Envelope - paper that is folded and glued in a wide variety of sizes and shapes, for containing letter of other materials. Many printing jobs will end up in an envelope. The closer a finished piece is to an envelope size, the easier it will be to mail and the less chance it will be damaged by jostling around inside the envelope. An envelope maker can make just about any size envelope needed, but a custom envelope requires a custom die and carries a custom price.

Estimator - one who computes or approximates evaluation of cost of printing or print related services to be done on which a quotation may be based.


Felt - a fabric of natural or synthetic fibers used in the press section of a papermkaing machine to absorb water from the paper as it is manufactured. see also felt finish, papermaking.

Felt Finish - a soft texture that affects the look but not the strength of an uncoated paper. A felt finish can be created at the wet end during the papermaking process in one of two ways; either with a roll that is covered with a felt, or with a rubber roll with a felt-patterned finish. An embossed felt finish is created off the machine, after the paper has dried. see also finish, papermaking, wet end.

Felt Side - the top side of the paper, which comes in contact with the dandy roll and felts during the papermaking process. The bottom side of the paper, which comes in contact with the wire (forming fabric) or the papermaking machine, is called the wire side. The felt side of a paper may appear to be softer, while the wire side of a paper may have more “tooth.” During printing, the softer texture of the felt side of an uncoated paper may pick up slightly more ink than the wire side of the same sheet, and the printer may have to adjust ink densities to compensate for this. Paper is generally packed and shipped as it is made: felt side up. see also finish, papermaking, tooth, two-sidedness, wire side.

Fiber - filaments of plant tissue, such as cocottoniber and wood fiber. Some specialty papers may contain synthetic fibers, such as rayon or nylon. see also clay, ingredients of paper.

Fiber-added Paper - paper with visible fibers, flecks, and specks. The term may be a bit misleading because all paper is made from fiber. The most common fiber additives are wood chips, colored cotton fibers, and colored rayon fibers. see also recycled paper, recycled-content paper.

Finish - the surface characteristics of a paper. Finishes may be created on-machine or off-machine. On-machine finishing can be done two ways: for a smooth or vellum finish, pressure is imparted on the sheet with a finishing “stack.” Laid texture of felt finishes are made with a marking roll, which actually presses the pattern into the paper while it’s still wet. Off-machine finishes are called embosses. This is a separate step that presses the paper between a steel pattern roll and either a hard cotton backing roll (to create the finish on both sides), or a plastic roll (for smoothness on one side). Several generic terms describe the various finishes of uncoated paper, such as vellum, smooth, and laid. Individual paper manufacturers may not use these terms consistently, instead using unique finishes or unique names for common finishes. see also calendering, embossed, papermaking, supercalender.

Finishing - preparing printed pages for use. Most printed jobs require one or more finishing steps, such as trimming, folding, or binding. see also binding, folding, trimming.

Flat - in lithography the assembly of photographic negatives or positives or vinyl acetate for exposure in a vacuum frame while in contact with a sensitized metal press plate.

Flexography - a direct (not offset) printing method that uses relief plates, similar to rubber stamps, which are made from rubber or photopolymer. The flexible plates are applied directly to the cylinder on the printing press. “Flexo” works best when printing large areas of solid color, making it popular for printing plastic bags, wrapping paper, and milk cartons. It’s also used for the Sunday color comics and newspaper inserts. Rubber manufacturers, eager to find new uses for rubber, have invested heavily in flexographic research, and improvements have been made in ink coverage and four-color registration. see also four-color process, offset, plate, printing process, registration, relief.

Floatation - a method for removing ink from paper during the deinking process by floating if off the paper. see also deinking.

Fluorescent Dye - a coloring agent added to paper to increase its brightness. Fluorescent dyes give white papers added brilliance in natural light and may add a slight cast like blue or green. see also brightness, refractiveness, whiteness.

Fluorescent Inks - printing inks that both emit and reflect light. Generally, these inks are brighter and more opaque than traditional inks. Using one or more fluorescent inks can actually brighten a printed image - especially four-color process printing on uncoated stock. On the down side, fluorescent inks are not colorfast and will fade in bright light and sunlight over time. They can also have a negative effect on dot gain and trapping, making the printing less sharp and without as much detail. see also dot gain, trapping.

Fogging Back - lowering the density of an image in a specific area usually to make type more legible while still letting the image show through.

Fold marks - markings at the top edges that show where folds should occur.

Folder - machine used to fold paper.

Folio - page number at top or bottom, either centered, flushed left or flushed right often with running headline.

Foil Stamping - to cover paper with a thin, flexible sheet of metal (foil) or other material. The foil, which may be clear or opaque, comes in a range of colors, and is carried on a plastic sheet. Stamping separates the foil from the plastic using heat and makes it adhere to the paper. Foil stamping can be combined with embossing or debossing as an added design element. see also debossing, embossing.

Folding - doubling up a sheet of paper so that one part lies on top of another. Folding stresses the paper fibers. To create a smooth, straight fold, heavy papers, like cover stocks and bristols, need to be scored before they’re folded. Multiple fold strength is important in printed pieces like books, maps, and pamphlets. It’s far less important in one-fold operations like greeting cards or envelopes, where fold cracking is the vital consideration. Folding strength is negatively affected by the drying heat used in various printing and finishing operations. see also binding, finishing, gatefold, imposition, scoring, signature.

Form - the assembled pages and images as printed on a single large sheet, before trimming. With the correct imposition, the pages of a form will be in correct order after folding and trimming. Once folded and trimmed, a form becomes a “signature.” see also folding, imposition, signature, trimming.

Formation - the uniformity of fibers in a sheet of paper. For example, paper with fine formation has evenly dispersed fibers, and will be smoother and more uniform than a paper with uneven formation. The tighter the fibers are bound, the more uniform the surface, and the better and more consistent the printed sheet usually looks. see also fiber, grain.

Four-color Process - a method that uses dots of magenta (red), cyan (blue), yellow, and black to simulate the continuous tones and variety of colors in a color image. Reproducing a four-color image begins with separating the image into four different halftones by using color filters of the opposite (or negative) color. For instance, a red filter is used to capture the cyan halftone, a blue filter is used to capture the yellow halftone, and a green filter is used to capture the magenta halftone. Each screen representing the individual colors of the process need to be created at different halftone angles. The black screen needs to be at 45 degrees, magenta at 75, yellow at 90, and cyan at 105 degrees. Because a printing press can’t change the tone intensity of ink, four-color process relies on a trick of the eye to mimic light and dark areas. Each halftone separation is printed with its process color (magenta, cyan, yellow, and black). When we look at the final result, our eyes blend the dots to recreate the continuous tones and variety of colors we see in a color photograph, painting, or drawing. see also color separation, continuous tone, dots per inch, halftone, screen subtractive color, touchplate.

Fourdrinier - a papermaking machine with a horizontal continuous wire belt. A “slurry” of pulp is poured or sprayed onto the wire (forming fabric). The water is then drained off and pressed out, and the paper is dried. see also papermaking, slurry.

Freesheet - paper that contains no more than 10% mechanical wood pulp. Most freesheet papers are totally “free” of mechanical (groundwood) pulp. see also pulping wood, uncoated freesheet, uncoated paper.

Furnish - fully prepared pulp and all its ingredients: fiber, fillers, sizing, and pigments, diluted with water and ready for the papermaking machine. Furnish contains about 99% water. see also paper, pulp, slurry.

Forwarding In Binding - the process between folding sheets and casing in, such as rounding and backing, putting on headbands, reinforcing backs, etc.

French Fold - fold with printing on one side so that when folded once in each direction, the printing on outside of the folds.


Gatefold - two or more parallel folds on a sheet of paper with the end flaps folding inward to create a “gate”. see also folding.

Galley (old) - flat oblong tray into which composed type matter is put and kept until made up into pages in the foformAlso a similar tray on a slug composing machine which receives the slugs as they are ejected. Also a long column of composed text matte

Galley Slave - old term for compositor.

Gang - group of frames or impositions in the same foformf different jobs arranged and positioned to be printed together.

Gather - to assemble or collect sections into single copies of complete books for binding.

Ghosting - image which appears as a lighter area on a subsequent print due to local blanket depressions from previous image areas on a letterpress rotary machine as well as on an offset press.

Ghosting Marring - a print by an image on it of work printed on the reverse side which has interfered with its drying so that differences in the trapping frame colors or glass variations are apparent.

Gigo - “garbage in, garbage out.”

Gilding - applying gold leaf to edges of books with a liquid agent and made permanent with burnishing tools.

Gloss - the property that’s responsible for coated paper’s shiny or lustrous appearance; also the measure of a sheet’s surface reflectivity. Gloss is often associated with quality: higher quality coated papers exhibit highhighss. Champion Kromekote is a paper noted and sold for its exceptionally high gloss. see also cast coating, coated paper.

Grade - a type or class of paper identified as having the same composition and characteristics. Grade is a generic paper category, such as writing, offset, cover, tag, and index paper. It can also refer to the quality level of the paper; or to a mill’s specific brank of paper, such as Champion Carnival, Benefit, or Kromekote.

Graduated - screen An area of image where halftone dots range continuously from one density to another.

Grain Direction - the direction in which fibers in a sheet of paper move. This governs paper properties such as increased size changes with relative humidity, across the grain, and better folding properties along the grain.

Grain - the direction in which more fibers lie in a sheet of paper. As paper is formed, the slurry of fibers moves forward on the forming wire at high speeds, aligning the fibers in the direction of the movement and creating the grain. At the same time, the machine shakes the slurry of fibers from side to side, so that the fibers crisscross. This crisscrossing creates a web of fibers, and gives the paper strength in both directions while maintaining a predominant grain, or direction. As the moisture in the air changes, the individual fibers take in moisture and swell sideways, rather than from end to end; this explains why paper will expand or shrink across the grain, and is more flexible along the grain and stiffer against the grain. For books and other bound work, the grain should run parallel with the binding, creating a smoother fold, making the pages easier to turn, and allowing the paper to swell across the grain. If the binding runs across the grain, the free ends of the paper will swell or shrink with moisture changes, but the bound ends will not. The book will buckle and the binding will weaken. With sheet paper, the grain direction is indicated by underscoring the dimension along which the grain lies, or by changing the order of the numbers. For example, a 23”x35” sheet is grain long; a grain short sheet is indicated by 25”x35”, or 35”x23”. On web paper, the grain runs along the length of the paper web. see also binding, formation, grain long, grain short, papermaking, slurry.

Grain Long - grain running along the length, or long side, of a sheet of paper (23”x35”). Fibers line up parallel to the long side of the paper. This book in your hands is an example of grain-long binding. see also grain, grain short.

Grain Short - grain running along the width, or short side, of a sheet of paper (35”x23”). Fibers line up parallel to the short side of the paper. see also grain, grain long.

Grammage - weight in grams of a quantity of paper cut to sheets that measure one square meter. see also weight.

Gravure - a printing process that uses intaglio, or recessed, image carriers. The image carrier, which is flat or cylindrical, moves through an ink pool. A blade scrapes excess ink off the plane of the plate, leaving ink in the recessed wells. A second cylinder presses the paper onto the plates, where it picks up ink from the wells. The high speed of gravure presses and the durability of the metal intaglio plates make gravure an economical printing method suitable for large print runs (more than two million copies). see also intaglio, plate, printing methods

Gripper - the row of clips holding the sheet of paper as it speeds through the press. see also gripper edge.

Gripper Edge - the leading edge of paper that moves through a printing press or folding machine. No printing can take place on the outside 3/8” of the paper on the gripper edge. see also gripper.

Groove Finish - a textured paper like Champion Carnival Groove, with shallow, parallel furrows or grooves running along the surface. This finish is created by embossing the paper after it comes off the paper- making machine. see also embossing, finishes.

Groundwood Paper - paper that contains between 10 and 75% of groundwood pulp. The groundwood pulping process, also know as mechanical pulping, leaves many natural impurities, like lignin, in the paper. As a result, groundwood paper is less bright and ages faster than freesheet paper, which is made from chemical pulping. Groundwood paper isn’t recommended for any printed matter that is expected to last over time. The advantages of ground- wood are that it’s lightweight, bulky, and economical. An example of a groundwood paper is Champion Maineweb, manufactured for catalogs and magazines. see also bulk, freesheet, lignin, pulping wood, uncoated groundwood.

Guillotine - a machine used to trim stacks of paper, which works like the original French guillotine worked. A cutting blade moves between two upright guides and slices the paper uniformly as it moves downward. see also trimming, trim size.

Gutter Space - between pages in the printing frame of a book, or inside margin towards the back or binding edge.


Halftone - a printed picture that uses dots to simulate the tones between light and dark. Because a printing press cannot change the tone of ink, it will only print the ink color being used on press. This works well for printing text or line art: the press simply puts a full dose of ink for each letter or line on the paper, creating small solid areas of ink. But black-and-white photographs are continuous tone images, and printing a photograph this way would have the same result: large solid areas of ink. White areas of the photograph would have no ink; black areas would have black ink; and gray areas would have black, not gray ink. The halftone mimics the continuous tone of a black-and-white photograph by converting the picture to dots. Hardwood Pulp pulp made from deciduous trees (trees that drop their leaves, such as maple and oak). Hardwood pulp has short fibers, which give paper bulk, body, and smoothness. Papers are often made from a blend of hardwood and softwood pulps, combining the qualities of both into a single paper. see also softwood pulp.

Headbox - the compartment that holds pulp slurry before it is sprayed or poured onto the paper-forming wire of a papermaking machine. see also papermaking, slurry, wet-end

Halftone Tone - graduated image composed of varying sized dots or lines, with equadistant centequidistantp>Hickies Imperfections in presswork due to dirt on press, trapping errors, etc.

Highlight Dot - the highest density of a halftone image.

Hickey - an irregularity in the ink coverage of a printed area. Hickeys are caused by paper or pressroom dust, dirt, or pick out on the printing blanket, all of which prevents the ink from adhering to the paper surface. see also dust, picking, pick out

Hydropulper - equipment used to slurry pulp. Water is added to dry pulp and fillers, and agitated until the mixture becomes about the consistency of oatmeal cereal. see also papermaking, slurry.Image setter High resolution, large format device for producing film from electronically generated page layouts.


IBC - Inside back cover.

IFC - Inside front cover.

Impression Cylinder - the cylinder or flat bed of a printing press that holds paper while an inked image from the blanket is pressed upon it. see also offset planographic.

Imposition Arrangement - of pages so that they print correctly on a press sheet, and the pages are in proper order when the sheets are folded.

Impression Product - resulting from one cycle of printing machine.

Inserts Extra - printed pages inserted loosely into printed pieces.

Interleaves Extra - blank pages inserted loosely into book after printing.

Index Paper - a stiff, inexpensive paper with a smooth finish. The high bulk but low weight of this paper makes it a popular choice for business reply cards. The basic size of index paper is 25.5”x30.5”. see also basic size.

Ingredients of Paper - all the materials used to make the mat of fibers known as paper. The one essential ingredient is cellulose fiber. The rest of the ingredients enhance the paper adding body, reducing cost, or changing color. see also cellulose fiber, clay, filler, furnish, papermaking, pigment pulp, resin, sizing.

Ink - a combination of pigment, pigment carrier or vehicle, and additives. Careful ink formulation by the printer can reduce or prevent smudging, unevenness, picking, and additional printing problems associated with ink. The ink used for a particular job depends on the paper specified and the printing process used. see also dry trap, tack, UV ink, vegetable-based ink, wet trap.

Ink Absorption - capacity to accept or absorb ink. see also absorbency, ink holdout.

Ink Holdout - resistance to the penetration of ink. Coated papers tend to have good ink holdout. The ink pigments sit on the surface of the coating, and are not absorbed into the spaces between the paper fibers. This minimizes dot spread and results in a sharp image. Uncoated papers tend to absorb ink into the sheet, but printers can compensate for this and still produce a very bright, sharp image on uncoated paper. see also coated paper, dot compensation, ink absorption.

Intaglio - a method of printing in which an image or letter is cut into the surface of wood or metal, creating tiny wells. Printing ink sits in these wells, and the paper is pressed onto the plate and into the wells, picking up the ink. see also engraving, gravure, printing methods.


Job Number - a number assigned to a printing project used for record keeping and job tracking. Also used to retrieve old jobs for reprints or reworking by customer.

Jog - to shake a stack of papers, either on a machine or by hand, so that the edges line up. Printers jog the paper to get rid of any dust or particles, and to ensure proper feeding into the press.

Jogger Vibrating - slopping platform that evens up the edges of stacks of paper.


Kraft Paper - a paper manufactured using kraft pulp, usually noted for its strength. In the kraft pulping process, fiber is separated from lignin by cooking wood chips with steam and pressure. see also bleached kraft, lignin, pulping wood.


Laid Finish - a paper with a translucent pattern of lines running both parallel to, and across the grain. Laid finished paper like Champion Mystique is created by dropping a patterned dandy roll onto the paper machine while the paper is still wet. see also dandy roll, finish.

Laser Compatible - paper that performs on a laser printer or copier. Laser compatible paper has good dimensional stability that keeps it from curling, changing shape, and causing paper jams in printers and copiers. All of the premium writing grades that Champion manufactures are laser compatible. see also dimensional stability, xerography.

Lay Edge - edge of a sheet of paper being fed into a printing press.

Leaf - one of a number of folds (each containing two pages) which compose a book or manuscript.

Letterpress - a relief printing method. Printing is done using cast metal type or plates on which the image or printing area are raised above the nonprinting areas. Ink rollers touch only the top surface of the raised areas; the nonprinting areas are lower and do not receive ink. The inked image is transferred directly to the page, resulting in type of images that may actually be depressed or debossed into the paper by the pressure of the press. see also printing methods, relief.

Lignin - the natural, glue-like substance that holds together the cellulose fibers of wood plants. Lignin that is left in pulp causes paper to age and yellow over time. see also acid-free, cellulose fiber, groundwood paper.

Like-sided - paper that has the same appearance and characteristics on both sides (the opposite of two-sided). see also twin-wire machine, two-sidedness.

Linen Finish - a paper finish that is similar to the texture of linen fabric, such as Champion Carnival Linen. Linen finishes are embossed after the paper comes off the paper machine. see also embossing, finish.

Litho - short for lithography or offset lithography.

Lithography - a printing process using flat surface planographic plates nally stone) that is based on the principle that oil and water don’t mix. The image to be lithographed is created on the plate with greasy material that repels water. Water is run over the plate, and the non-image areas absorb it. When the oily ink hits the plate, it’s attracted to the similarly greasy image, and repelled by the rest of the wet plate. When paper is pressed onto the plate, it picks up the ink (and a bit of the water). This process is now used primarily for limited-edition prints. see also offset, planographic, plate, printing process.

Lupe - from the German word for magnifying glass, a lens used by photographers, printers, and designers to examine details in printed materials.


Make Ready - process of adjusting final plate on the press to fine tune or modify plate surface.

M Weight - the weight in pounds of 1,000 sheets (or two standard 500- sheet reams) or paper. On the label of a paper ream, the M weight is often given after the dimensions of the paper in the ream: for example, 23”x29”-42M. The capital letter M, like the Roman numeral M, designates 1,000; the 42 indicates that the 1,000 sheets weigh 42 lbs. see also basis weight, ream weight, weight.

Machine Coated - paper that is coated on the papermaking machine. see also coated paper.

Machine Finish - a paper texture of finish imparted onto the paper white it’s still on the papermaking machine. see also felt finish, finish, vellum.

Make-ready - all the activities involved in preparing a printing press for a print run, such as setting the registration, balancing the color, and adjusting the plates and blankets for paper thickness. see also imposition, impression cylinder, plate, printing methods, registration.

Making Order - see manufacturing order manufacturing order also know as making order. A quantity of paper manufactured to custom specifications, such as a special weight, color, or size not available as a standard stocking item. Special order requirements are necessary, and should be discussed with a local paper consultant. see also imposition, paper consultant, stock

Margin Imprinted - space around edge of page. head foredge back margin foot

Mark-up - to write up instructions as on a dummy.

Match Color - a custom-blended ink that matches a specified color exactly. Match colors are used to print line copy and halftones in one, two, three, or occasionally more colors. The specified colors are chosen from color systems. The most widely used systems are the PATONE MATCHING SYSTEM, Colorcurve, and Toyo. see also Colorcurve, PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM, Toyo.

Match Print Photographic - proof made from all color flats and form composite proof showing color quality as well as accuracy, layout, and imposition before plates are made.

Matte Coated - a non-glossy coating on paper, generally used to refer to papers having little or no gloss. A matte coated sheet is often specified when there is a lot of type, since it makes for easier reading. see also coated paper, dull coated, finish, gloss.

Mechanical Pulping - separating wood fibers for pulp by grinding wood chips mechanically, rather than by using a chemical process.

Merchant - a distributor of papers, often representing several different paper mills or manufacturers.

Metamerism - the tendency of color to change with the light source in which it’s viewed. For example, two reds may appear to match under fluorescent light, but clash badly in the light of the sun.

Mill - the physical site where paper is manufactured;refers to a company that manufactures paper. Champion premium papers, for example, are manufactured at the Hamilton, Ohio mill. Champion is also referred to as a mill.

Mill Broke - paper generated at the paper mill prior to completion of the manufacturing process. Wet mill broke originates at the wet end of the papermaking machine, while dry mill broke comes from the dry end of the papermaking machine. see also dry end, wet end

Midtone Dot - Commonly taken as the area between highlight and shadow area of subjects face in halftone image.

Moire - a pattern created by printing several repetitive designs on top of each other. In four-color process printing, four screens of colored dots print on top of each other. If the angles of the halftone screens of each of the four colors are not properly aligned with each other, an undesireble, blurry pattundesirable “moire” appears in the final image; the term is from the watery or wavy pattern seen on moire silk. see also four-color process, halftone, rosette, screen.

Mull Coarse - muslin glue to back of book or pads for strengthening.


Newsprint Paper - a grade of paper made primarily from groundwook (mechanical) pulp rather than chemical pulp, resulting in a short lifespan. Newsprint is one of the least expensive printing papers. see also groundwood paper, pulping wood.


OA of Register - when two sheet passes on a press are misaligned.

OBC - Outside back cover.

OFC - Outside front cover.

Offset - the transfer of ink from one material to another.

Offset Lithography - indirect printing method in which the inked image on the press-plate is first printed onto a rubber blanket, then in turn offsets the inked impression on to the sheet of paper.

Over Run - surplus of copies printed.

OD100 Process - a proprietary term used to describe Champion’s bleaching technology that combines oxygen delignification and 100% substitution of chlorine dioxide for elemental chlorine. see also bleach filtrate recycling, elemental chlorine free, oxygen delignification.

Offset Printing (Offset lithography) - currently the most common commercial printing method, in which ink is offset from the printing plate to to a second roller then to paper.

Office Reprographic Paper - commonly referred to as reprographic paper, includes a variety of business paper grades (both cut-size and copier rolls), like bond, mimeo, duplicator, and reproduction papers. see also bond paper, electronic printing, xerography.

Off-machine Coating - coating paper after it comes off the papermaking machine rather than while it is still on the machine. Off-machine coaters may be used to add a single layer of coating to a paper, or to add a second layer to a paper that has already been machine coated. see also coated paper.

Offset - an indirect printing process. Ink is transferred to paper from a blanket that carries an impression from the printing plate, rather than directly from the printing plate itself. Generally, when we say “offset” we mean “offset lithography,” even though other printing processes, such as letterpress, may also use this indirect technique. The term offset (or “set off”) can also refer to the smudges created when ink from one printed sheet transfers to another. Offset spray is used to prevent this. see also impression cylinder, lithography, planographic, plate, printing processes.

Offset Papers - book and text weight papers that are made to withstand the rigors of offset printing. These papers are more resistant to water and less susceptible to picking. Most book and text grades of paper can be used on offset presses. Often the term “offset” is used synonymously with “book.” The basic size of off- set papers is 25”x38”. see also basic size, book papers, picking, text paper.

Opacity - a measure of how opaque a paper is. The more fibers or fillers a paper has, the more opaque it is, and the less it allows “show- through” of the printing on the back side or on the next page. Opacity isn’t always determined by thickness or weight; a thinner paper may have more opacity than a thicker paper if opacifying thickeners are used. see also calcuim carbonate, fillers, calciumess, titanium dioxide, weight.

Oxygen Delignification - a processing step that takes place after pulping and before bleaching. Oxygen is used to remove lignin (delignify) resulting in lower chemical usage in the bleach plant. see also bleaching, lignin, OD100 process.


Pallet - a platform with a slatted bottom, used to hold and ship cartons of paper stacked on top of each other.

PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM - the most widely used system for specifying and blending match colors. The PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM identifies more than 700 colors. It provides designers with swatches for specific colors, and gives printers the recipes for making those colors. PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM was developed by neither a commercial printer nor an ink manufacture, leaving the choice of ink brand up to the printer. see also Colorcurve, match color, Toyo.

Paper - a complex matted web of cellulose fibers.

Paper Consultant - a representative from a paper mill or merchant who has the expertise to help designers and printers choose just the right paper for a specific job. see also manufacturing order, merchant, specifying paper.

Paper Cut - the excruciating, often unforseeable, and usually inviunforeseeable the-naked-eye cut received when skin slides along the edge of a piece of paper at just the wrong angle.

Paperboard - paper with a caliper greater than .012 inches, or 12 points. Paperboard is used primarily for packaging and construction materials. Paperboard doesn’t need to have the same whiteness and brightness as premium printing and writing papers, and because the process of deinking is less important in its manufacture, it is a perfect product for using recovered fiber. see also caliper, deinking

Paper-ink Affinity - the tendency for paper and ink to attract and stay attracted to each other. This keeps the ink on the paper and off the reader’s hands or the next sheet. An incompatibility between ink and paper can cause printing problems. see also dry trap, tack, wet trap

Papermaking - creating a web of fiber from plant cellulose (or, less commonly, from synthetic fbers). Papermakers today followfiberssame steps that its inventor, Ts’ai Lun, followed almost two thousand years ago: pulping vegetable matter and leaving the cellulose fibers behind; mixing the pulp with lots of water; draining it; forming paper on a sieve-like mold; pressing the paper to remove some of the water; and drying it to remove the rest of the water. Technology has sped up the process and helped to improve the smoothness, brightness, and printability of the paper, but it hasn’t changed the essence of papermaking. papermaking process see also additives, alkaline papermaking, calendering, chemical pulping, deinking, dry end, drying, felt finish, felt side, Fourdrinier, grain, ingredients of paper, lignin, pulping wood, semi-chemical pulping, supercalender, wet end, wire side

Papyrus - an aquatic plant found in northern Africa. Although papyrus is considered to be the first paper, it’s not, in the strict definition of the word, paper (which is a matter web of individual fibers). Rather, early papyrus “paper” was made by peeling the plant, which is constructed like an onion, and placing one layer on top of another. The natural juices acted like glue, bonding the layers and leaving the cellular structure of the plant layers intact. see also scrolls

Parchment - a writing substance made from the skin of animals. Today, parchment-like paper, or vegetable parchment, is made by dip- ping paper quickly into sulfuric acid, then quickly washing it and neutralizing the acid. This melts the fibers on the outside, which in turn coats the other fibers and fills the void between them. The result is a grease resistant sheet that is difficult to recycle.

Page Proofs Proofs - made up from pages.

Page - one side of a leaf

Paste-up Preparation - of positive materials into a layout for photographing to film negatives.

Perf Marks - markings usually dotted lines at edges showing where perforations should occur.

Perfect Binding - a book binding process where pages are glued together and directly to the cover of the book. The appearance is of a flat spine on the end of the book such as a paperback book.

Perfecting Press - a printing press that simultaneously prints both sides of a sheet of paper as it passes through the press. On other presses, printing both sides means running the street through the press to print one side, allowing the ink to dry, turning the paper over, and then running the sheet through the press again to print the other side. see also imposition, printing methods.

Permanence - a paper’s ability to resist tears, fading, and general aging over time. The national standard for permanence requires a pH of 7.5-8.5; at least 2% calcium carbonate; and no ground wood or unbleached fiber. The standard also has specific fold endurance and tear resistance requirements. Paper meeting the standard for permanence can be expected to last more than 100 years. Paper with a pH level of 5.5 or higher can be expected to last up to 50 years. see also alkaline papermaking, archival paper, pH

Petroleum-based Ink - an ink using petroleum as the vehicle for carrying the pigment. Ink manufacturers are seeking new vehicles to reduce the need for petroleum-based solvents, which may be toxic at high levels. see also ink, vegetable-based ink

pH - the measeure of the acidity or alkalinity of a material. Paper with a pH below 7.0 is considered acidic; paper with a pH above 7.0 is considered acid-free, or alkaline. see also acid-free paper, alkaline papermaking, archival paper.

Perfect Binding - binding process where backs of sections are cut off, roughened and glued together, and rung in a cover.

Perfecting Printing - both sides of the paper (or other material) at the same pass through the printing machine.

Perforating Punching - small holes or slits in a sheet of paper or cardboard to facilitate tearing along a desired line.

PhotoCopy - a mechanical printing process that uses a light sensitive printing element, magnetic toner and a heating element to fuse the toner to the paper.

Photo Plate - a light sensitive printing plate. The plate is developed like film, then used on a printing press.

Photoengraving - making printing plates by exposure of line and halftone negatives on sensitized metal, converting the image into an acid resist, and etching the print to the relief required for letterpress printing.

Photoengraving - making printing plates by exposure of line and halftone negatives on sensitized metal, converting the image into an acid resist; and etching the print to the relief required for letterpress printing.

Pica Standard of Measurement - 1/6 inch. 1 pica = 12 points 72 points = 1 inch

Pick Out - a problem on press caused by unevenly sealed paper, or paper with low bonding strength. The ink “picks” off weak areas of the paper, lifting coating from a coated stock, or lifting fibers from an uncoated stock, and transferring them to the printing blanket. These fibers will eventually be transferred back onto the sheets being printed, causing inking and surface inconsistencies. see also bonding strength, hickey, picking, sizing

Pick Resistance - the ability of paper fibers to hold together during the printing process. see also bonding strength, pick out sizing

Picking - a problem generally resulting from using an ink that’s too tacky for the paper it’s printed on. The ink actually pulls tiny pieces of the paper off the surface of the sheet. Two types of picking are fiber bundles and coating picking. Fiber bundles are caused by weak fiber bond, and coating picking occurs when the adhesive properties of coating binder aren’t strong enough to hold up the high tack of the offset printing process. see also bonding strenght, pick out, sizing Pigment a material, such as titanium dioxide, added to pulp before it is formed into paper. White pigments boost brightness and opacity; colored pigments and dyes control the shade or change the color see also fluorescent dye, ingredients of paper, opacity, titanium dioxide
Pinholing Failure - of printed ink to form a completely continuous film, visible in the form of small holes in the printed areas.

Plate Reproduction - of type or cuts in metal, plastic, rubber, or other material, to form a plate bearing a relief, planographic or intaglio printing surface.

Platemaking Making - a printing plate from a film or flat includes preparation of the plate surface, sensitizing, exposure through the flat, development or processing and finishing.

Planographic - a method for printing ink onto paper, where the image sits on the same surface as the printing plate. The image area is greased to attract ink, while the rest of the plate attracts water and repels ink. As the paper is pressed onto the flat surface of the plate, it picks up ink from the greasy image areas and a small bit of water from blank areas. This is the printing process used in lithography and offset lithography. see also lithography, offset, plate, printing methods.

Plate Brief For Printing Plate - generally a thin sheet of metal that carries the printing image. The plate surface is treated or configured so that only the printing image is ink receptive. see also electronic printing, intaglio, letterpress, lithography, offset, planographic, printing methods, relief

Plate Ready Film Final - photographic film used to “burn” printing plates.

PMS Color (Pantone Matching System) - a proprietary color system for choosing and matching specific spot colors. Almost all printers worldwide use this system for color matching.

Point - in measurements of the thickness of paper, one point is 1/1000 or .001 inches; measurements of the size of type, one point is 1/72 inch. see also caliper, thickness

Porosity - refers to the openness or compactness of the fibers in a paper, is measured by the ability of air to pass through the sheet. The more open a paper is, the greater its porosity.

Pre-consumer Recovered Paper - paper recovered after the papermaking process, but before use by a consumer. see also recovered paper, recycled content paper, recycled paper

Post-consumer Recovered Paper - paper material recovered after being used by a consumer. see also recovered paper, recycled content paper, recycled paper

PPI - paper per inch, or the number of sheets in a one-inch stack of paper; used to describe the bulk of a paper. see also bulk, caliper, thickness.

Precision Sheeting - converting rolls of paper into finished sheet sizes in a single operation.

Press-Proof - actual press sheet to show image, tone values and colors as well as imposition of frame or press-plate.

Printers Pairs - two consecutive pages as they appear on a flat or signature.

Press Proof - a test printing of a subject prior to the final production run. Press proofs are generally printed on the paper stock that will be used for the finished project. A few sheets are run as a final check before printing the entire job.

Printability - how well a paper performs with ink on press. Absorbency, smoothness, ink holdout, and opacity all affect printability. see also absorbency, dimensional stability, ink holdout, opacity, relative humidity

Printing - the process of applying images to a variety of surfaces. Some printing processes include: offset lithography, thermography, la gravuer, letterpress, silkscreen, digital, laser, dye sub, photographic.

Print Quality - the overall excellence of a printed piece. Paper, ink, press, and the skill of the press operators all affect print quality. see also printability.

Printing Methods - a means or tool for placing ink on paper. Most printing is done with a plate. The four main types of printing methods are relief, where words or images are raised above the surface of the plate; intaglio, where they are etched through the surface; planographic, on the same plane as the surface; and stencil, or screen printing, cut below the plate surface. Words and images may also be “printed” electronically, using photocopiers and inkjet printers. see also electronic printing, intaglio, letterpress, lithography, offset, planographic, plate, relief, screen printing, stencil, waterless printing, web press

Process Colors - the four process colors: magenta (process red), cyan (process blue), yellow, and black used to print four-color images. see also color separating, four-color process, subtractive colors

Process Inks - printing inks, usually in sets of four colors. The most frequent combinations is yellow, magenta, cyan, and black, which are printed over one another in that order to obtain a colored print with the desired hues, whites, blacks, and grays.

Proof - impression from composed type or blocks, taken for checking and correction, from a lithographic plate to check accuracy of layout, type matter, tone and color reproduction.

Pull For Position - guide sheet for the positioning of type, blocks, etc.

Pt. - abbreviation for “point.” see also point

Pulp - a wet slurry of fibers and water that is the basic ingredient of paper. see also cellulose fiber, pulping wood, slurry, wet end

Pulping Wood - transforming wood, the raw material of most paper, into pulp. Pulping breaks wood apart, separating the rows of cellulose fibers that are stuck together with lignin. These separated fibers will later create the matted web of fibers we know as paper. Paper may be made with pulp from just one of the following processes, or by mixing mechanical and chemical pulps. types of pulping techniques see also cellulose fiber, freesheet, groundwood paper, lignin, papermaking q.html


Quadratone - a black and white image printed with four screens and four colors, such as one or more blacks and different shades of gray, used to enrich the contrast between light and dark ares. see also continuous tone, duotoareas halftone, screen, tritone


Rag Paper - paper with at least 25% and as much as 100% cotton fibers. see also cotton paper

Ream - a package containing 500 sheets of printing paper.

Ream Weight - the actual weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper. see also actual weight, basis weight, weight

Recovered Paper - paper tha has been separated, diverted, or thatoved from the solid waste stream.

Recycable - recycled paper, suited for recycling. This term may be misleading. For example, it may be physically possible to recycle a given material, but if it is too costly to do so, or if a collection process is not in place, recycling may be impossible or economically not feasible.

Recycled Content Paper -a paper product containing some, but consisting of less than 100% recovered fiber. Champion Carnival is an example of a recycled content paper. see also deinking, pre-consumer recovered paper, post-consumer recovered paper, recycled content paper

Recycled Paper - a paper product consisting of 100% recovered fiber. Recovered fiber includes pre- and/or post-consumer sources. Champion Benefit is an example of a !00% recycle paper. see also deinking, pre-consumer recovered paper, post-consumer recovered paper, recycled content paper

Refining - the process of cutting, breaking, and flattening the cellulose fibers in pulp. In order to form a strong, flexible paper, pulp fibers need to be flattened and frayed. The refiner has metal discs that can be adjusted to create longer or shorter fibers. see also hydropulper, papermaking

Refractiveness - a measure of how much a sheet of paper deflects the light that hits it. The more light a sheet deflects, the greater its refractiveness, allowing a printed image to be more brilliant and detailed. see also brightness, whiteness

Readers Pairs - two consecutive pages as they appear in printed piece.

Registration - the process of alignment of the different elements in a printing job. Such as the different colored inks on a print job, so they are correctly printed next to each other or over each other . (i.e. If the inks can be seen to overlap improperly or to leave white gaps on the page, the printing is said to be “out of registration” or “poorly registered”.)

Relative Humidity - balance the relative humidity of the pressroom compared to the relative humidity of the paper to be printed. Relative humidity is a measure of how much moisture air or paper can hold versus how much it is actually holding at a given temperature. Before printing a job, the printer must “cure” the paper by letting it sit, wrapped, in the pressroom for a determined amount of time. This will bring the paper to the same temperature and humidity as the pressroom, helping to prevent several printing problems. For instance, ink on cold paper takes longer to dry than ink on room-temperature paper. Ink on dry paper may “chalk” if the dry paper absorbs the liquid in the pigment before the solid pigments adhere to the paper. Paper with too much humidity will expand, causing it to wrinkle on press. This can cause misalignment and a lack or registration in the printing. see also registration

Relief - a method for printing ink on paper, using type of images that rise above the surface of the printing plate. Ink sits on top of these raised surfaces, and as the paper is pressed onto them it picks up ink. Letterpress, flexography, and rubber stamps all use relief plates. In letterpress, intense pressure can cause images to be slightly debossed or depressed below the surface of the paper. see also flexography, letterpress, plate, printing methods

Reprographic - paper see office reprographic paper

Resilience - the ability of paper to return to its original form after being stressed by bending, stretching, or compressing during the printing and finishing processes. see also bonding strength, dimensional stability, runnability, tensile, strength

Resin - a generic term referring to the materials used by paper manufactures to “size” paper. Rosin, a natural resin from pine trees, is used in the manufacture of acidic paper. Synthetic resins are used in the manufacture of alkaline and acid-free papers. see also acid-free, alkaline papermaking, alum, ingredients of paper, rosin, sizing.

Rosette - the formation created by the dots that make up four-color images. The dots, in magenta (red), cyan (blue), yellow, and black, overlap each other in a cluster. Because the dots are not perfectly round, and because they are turned at angles to each other, this cluster resembles the arrangement of petals in a rose. see also four-color process

Rosin - a natural resin from pine trees, used to size acidic paper. see also ingredients of paper, resin.

Runnability - the ease with which a paper moves through a printing press. For example, offset lithography puts more stress on paper than other printing processes because of: how the paper moves through the press; the great amount of water used in the process; and the tackiness of the inks that are used. In order to have good runnability, paper for offset printing must be strong, have great tear resistance, and possess good dimensional stability. It must also be water resistant and have a strong surface so the paper doesn’t pick. Runnability is also a term for measuring the number of mechanical web breaks per 1,000 rolls of paper run on a press. see also dimensional stability, offset, printability.


Saddle Stitch - a book binding process where pages are stapled together through the spine of the book. Tradionally performed on V shaped saddle. Many Traditionallyre saddle stiched or stapled.

Saddle Stitching - stitching where the wire staples pass through the spine from the outside and are clinched in the center. Only used with folded sections, either single sections or two or more sections inset to form a single section.

Score Impressions - or cut in flat material to facilitate bending or tearing. (Bending) fibers compressed so bending happens at desired spot, tearing and material cut half-way through.

Scoring - pressing a chanel into a sheet of paper to allow it to fold more easily. Scoring and pressing the paper fibers together creates an emossed channel that does two things: acts as aembossedfor easier folding, and creates a hinge that keeps the fiber stretch short. The score should run parallel to the paper grain; the thicker the paper, the wider the score should be. Paper should be folded with the scored side on the outside, making two short stretches rather than one long one. The outcome is a straight, durable fold that doesn’t crack or break. see also finishing, folding, grain

Screen Printing - a printing process also called silk screening, where ink is transferred through a porous screen, such as nylon, onto the surface to be decorated. An emulsion or stencil is used to block out the negative, or non-printing areas of the screen. A squeegee forces ink through the open areas of the screen and onto the paper, plastic, cardboard, wood, fabric, glass, or other material. see also printing process, stencil.

Scrolls - long sheets of papyrus, parchment, or paer rolled for storage. see also papyrus, parchment.

Shadow Dot - the lowest density of a halftone image.

Semi-chemical - pulping using chemicals and mechanical grinding to separate the cellulose fibers of wood. Because this pulping process doesn’t remove lignin, it isn’t generally used for fine printing and writing papers. It’s used instead for papers not requiring permanence. see also pulping wood, cellulose fibers, lignin.

Sheet-fed Press - a press that prints single sheets of paper, rather than a continuous roll or web of paper. A sheet-fed press prints more slowly than a web press, and is typically used for shorter runs. see also offset, web paper, web press

Sheetwise - see imposition

Sheffield - a test used to measure the smoothness of paper by measuring the rate of air flow over the surface of the sheet. The lower the number, the smoother the sheet. see also smooth finish, smoothness

Show-through - see opacity

Side Stitching - stitching where the wire staples pass through the pile of sections or leaves gathered upon each other and are clinched on the underside.

Signature - the collated pages of one folded and trimmed form, making up one section of a bound book. see also binding, form, imposition, trimming Signature (Section) Printed sheet (or its flat) that consists of a number of pages of a book, so laced out that they will fold and bind together as a section of a book. The printed sheet after folding.

Silk Screen - see screen printing

Sizing - a Resin, such as rosin, added to pulp before it’s formed into paper, or added to the surface of the paper after it’s dry. Sizing acts as a glue to keep the fibers of the finished paper tight, since loose fibers on the surface of the paper can cause printing problems. Sizing also helps the finished paper repel water, which is an especially important property for stock that will be used for offset printing. see also bonding strength, ingredients of paper, resin, rosin

Skid - a platform built with a solid wood bottom, for holding stacks of paper not packed in cartons. Paper may be ordered in skids or cartons. When printers are printing a large job, they generally prefer skids to cartons.

Slurry - a thin, watery mixture. The mixture of pulp and water that is poured onton the papermaking machine is often referred to as slurry. see also headbox, hydorpulper, papermaking, wet end.

Spot Color - single colors applied to printing when process color is not necessary (i.e. one, two and three color printing), or when process colors need to be augmented (i.e. a fluorescent pink headline or a metallic tint).

Spread 1) - a design that encompasses two or more facing pages (i.e. the center spread in the morning newspaper)

Spread 2) - spreading the ink beyond the edge of an object so that there is no gap between it and the next colored object. “Choke and Spread” are common methods of trapping elements of a printing job.

Smooth Finish - paper finished to a Shefield smoothness between 50 and 150. see also finish, Sheffield, smoothness

Smoothness - the surface property of paper that desribes its degree of uniform evenness and flatness. Wdescribesting, the smoother the paper, the better the ink dot formation and the sharper the image. see also cast-coating, coated paper, Sheffield, smooth finish, super- calendar, uncoated paper

Softwood Pulp - pulp made from coniferous trees (evergreen tress with cones and needles, such as pine and fir trees). Paper is often made using a blend of pulps; softwood pulp has long fibers, giving paper strength; hardwood fibers are short, lending smoothness, bulk, and body. see also hardwood pulp, pulping wood

Specifying Paper - choosing the appropriate paper for a specific printing job, in order to meet its individual design, printing, handling, and economic requirements. Designers and printers are frequently assisted by a paper merchant or a paper mill consultant when choosing a paper. see also paper consultant.

Spine Back - edge of a book.

Spot Color - small area printed in a second color.

Stabbing - to receive a pile of sections or leaves, the required number of staples is first inserted from one side. The wire feed control is set so that the shank of the staple is not long enough to pass through the underside of the pile. The job is then

Stochastic - a relatively new method for creating halftones. Rather than producing the regularly space dots of lined screens, stochastic screening generates randomly placed dots. Because the generation of the dots is frequently modulated, the technique is also called FM screening. Registration on press is slightly more difficult than with lined screens, but the colors rests can be brilliant. see also continuous tone, dpi, halftone, registration, screen

Stock Paper - or other material that will be printed. To a paper mill, a “stock item” is a manufactured item that is invertoried, as opposed to a “manufacturing order,inventoriedh is custom made. see also manufacturing order.

Stripping - originally, the removal of the photographic emulsion with its image from individual negatives and combining them in position on a glass plate. Now the use of stripfilm materials, and the cutting, attachment, and other operations for assemblin

Stumping or Blocking - impressing bassemblings, etc., by means of hot die, brass types or blocks.

Supercalender - alternating steel and fiber-covered calendar rolls that increase a sheet’s gloss and smoothness. The supercalender is a separate piece of equipment located close to the dry end of the paper machine. see also calendering, gloss, papermaking, smoothness

Swatchbook - a booklet containing paper samples and paper specifications for a line of paper. Champion produces individual swatchbooks for each of its fine printing papers.


Tack - stickiness. Tack is a critical property of the ink used in lithography. Because the ink sits on a flat surface, it needs internal cohesion; in other words, it needs to stick to itself so that it doesn’t run all over the plate. However, too much tack can cause it to pull the paper apart. When printing two or more ink colors in line, the ink tack and sequence must be adjusted in order for the ink to adhere to each other as well as to the paper. see also dry trap, lithography, plate, wet trap

Tag Paper - a heavy utility grade of paper used to print tags, such as the store tags on clothing. Tag paper must be strong and durable, yet have good affinity for printing inks.

Tear Strength - a measure of how likely a paper will continue to tear once started. Tear strength will be different with and agaist the grain of paper. Paper that will be punched shouldagainstgood tear strength. see also bonding strength, grain

Tensile Strength - a measure of how likely a paper is to break when pulled at opposite ends, in oppostie directions. A web offset paper must have good tensioppositegth if it is to withstand the high speed of the printing press. see also bonding strenght, web break, web paper, web press

Textstrength - premium uncoated printing paper of fine quality, manufactured in weights suitable for the text of books or brochures. Text papers are made in a wide variety of finishes, including smooth, antique, vellum, laid, felt, and emobossed. They are characterized by execellent folding qualiembossedtablity, and durability. Textexcellente used moqualities for books, annual reports, brochures, booklets, advertising collateral material, and announcements, and have a basic size of 25”x38”. see also basic size, book paper, cover paper, offset paper

Thermography - a finishing applied after printing that creates the raised effect of engrved printing. Special inks are used during offset printing; aengravededer is applied to the paper; and the paper is passed through poweredr. see also engraving, offset, printing methods

Thickness - the thickness of a single piece of paper, as measured in thousandths of an inch, called “caliper.” Thickness measurements define the bulkiness of a sheet of paper, but the actual number of sheets in an inch-high stack of paper is referred to as PPI, or pages per inch. see also bulk, caliper, ppi

Tint - to vary a color by adding white. Also, a very light or delicate variation of a color.

Titanium Dioxide - an exceptionally opaque and expensive compound used as a white pigment and opcifier in papermaking. Elemental titanium is a lustrous, lightweight, white metal with exceptional strength. see also ingredients of paper, opacity, pigment

Tooth - refers to paper’s surface roughness, a characteristic that allows it to take up ink.

Touchplate - in four-color process printing, an additional fifth plate of ink that adds more of one color to enhance the image. see also four-color process, subtractive color

Toyo - a system used for color matching. see also Colorcurve, match color, PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM

Trapping - printing ink over previously printed ink. Trapping is also used to describe the very slight overlapping of adjacent colors. Trapping color is achieved by use of chokes and spreads. see also dry trap, tack, wet trap.

Trim Size - the final size of a printed piece once it’s been cut to specification.

Trimming - cutting paper after printing to make all sheets the same or a specified size. After binding printed papers, the head, foot, and edge of a book are often trimmed in a guillotine to make all the papes even. The inner papes of each signature have a tighter fold and will be slightly longer than the outer pages. see also finishing, guillotine, signature, trim size

Tritone - a black and white image printed with three screens and three colors, such as one black and two grays, used to enrich the contrast between light and dark areas. see also continuous tone, duotone, halftone, quadratone, screen

Twin-wire Machine - a paper making machine with two continuous forming wires, rather than just one. Twin-wires were designed to create a less two-sided paper than manufactured on a Fourdrinier paper machine. Other techniques for reducing two-sidedness have since been developed, enabling paper manufactures to created paper on single-wire machines with little side-to-side variation. see also felt side, Fourdrinier, two-sidedness, wire side

Two-sidedness - the tendency of some papers to have slightly different characteristics and printing results from side-to-side. see also felf side, like-sided, wire side


Uncoated Freesheet - uncoated paper containing no more than 10% mechanical wood pulp. Most uncoated freesheet paper is entirely free of mechanical wood pulp. Most uncoated printing and writing papers are classified into the broader category of uncoated freesheet. see also mechanical pulp, pupling wood, uncoated paper

Uncoated Groundwood - all paper, that isn’t coated, containing more than 10% ground- wood fiber in its furnish. see also furnish, groundwood paper, newsprint paper, uncoated paper

Uncoated Paper - paper that doesn’t have coating. Uncoated papers are manufactured in a great variety of finishes, colors, and weights, and offer the versatility needed to meet the creative and practical demands of most print jobs. see also book paper, cotton paper, cover paper, furnish, offset papers, text papers, vellum

UV Coating - a very slick, glossy coating applied to the printed paper surface and dried on press with ultraviolet (UV) light. The slick surface of UV coating makes it eye catching, and therefore very popular for printing the covers of paperback novels. Because UV coating can cause slight variations in match colors, consulting with an ink manufacturer or printer will yield best results.

UV Ink - ink specially formulated to dry quickly with ultraviolet (UV) light while still on press. UV drying improves turnaround time because it eliminates waiting for the first side to dry before printing the second side. This eliminates the need for the paper to pass through the press more than once. see also dry trap, ink, wet trap


Varnish - a coating printed on top of a printed sheet to protect it, add a finish, and/or add a tinge of color. An entire sheet may be varnished, or certain areas, like halftones, may be spot varnished to add emphasis and appeal.

Vegetable-based Ink - ink using vegetable oil, rather than petroleum solvents, as the vehicle for carrying pigment. Vegetable ink colors tend to be more vibrant than petroleum-based inks, but may take longer to dry. This book, Words on Paper, is printed with soy- based ink, a type of vegetable-based ink. see also ink, petroleum-based ink

Vellum - an uncoated paper finish that is fairly even, but not quite as even as a smooth finish. Vellum is probably the most popular finish for uncoated paper. see also finish, uncoated paper

Vandyke - brown print

Varnish - a clear shiny ink used to add gloss to printed pieces.

Vignette Fade - to white or small decorative design or illustration.


Web Press Cylinder - printing machine in which the paper is fed from a continuous reel, as opposed to sheet fed.

Washing - see deinking

Waterless Printing - a printing process that runs on offset lithography presses, but without using water. The non-image areas of the plate are coated with silicone, allowing the ink to run off freely into shallow wells, in the plate. Because finer dots can be used in waterless printing, the image is very detailed. The cost for this printing process is high, but the results can be magnificent. see also dryography, offset, plate

Watermark - a mark in fine papers, imparted during manufacture, that identifies a paper. It doesn’t leave an impression in the paper, instead it leaves behind a translucent mark. see also dandy roll

Web - a roll of paper. see also web paper

Web Break - a tear through a roll of paper, either while it is being manufactured at the mill, or while it is running through a printing press. When the web breaks, either at the mill or on press, machinery must be shut down, causing a loss of production time. see also papermaking, web paper, web press

Web Paper - paper that comes in a roll rather than in sheets. A web press runs this paper, folding and/or cutting it after it is printed. web press a press specifically designed to print rolls of paper called webs, rather than sheets. A web press runs much faster than a sheet-fed press: as many as 40,000 images per hour versus a maxi- mum of about 14,000 per hour on a sheet-feb press. see also offset, sheet-fed press, web, web paper.

Web Press - a high speed printing press that prints on both sides of a continuous roll of paper. Web presses are used for high volume printing such as newspapers and magazines.

Weight - the tonnage or poundage of a quantity of paper. The weight of paper may be expressed as basis weight, ream weight, M weight, or grammage. Basis weight is the weight in pounds of 500 sheets of paper cut to a given standard size (called basic size), such as 25”x38”, depending on the grade of paper. Ream weight is the actual weight in pounds of 500 sheets of paper, regardless of basic size of grade. M weight is the actual weight of 1,000 sheets of paper. Because this is twice the quantity of a ream of paper, it is also twice the ream weight. Grammage is a metric measure similar to the basis weight of paper. Unlike basis weight, which uses different basic sizes for different grades of paper, grammage always uses the same sheet size - one square meter - regardless of the paper grade. see also actual weight, basis weight, grammage, M weight, ream weight

Wet End - the front end of the papermaking machine, including the head- box, wire, and presses. Papaer is more water than fiber in this section of the machine. see also dry end, headboPaperermaking, slurry

Wet Trap Printing - a layer of wet ink over, or adjacent to, a previous layer of wet ink. see also dry trap, tack, trapping

Wire Stitching - or stapling To fasten together sheets, signatures, or sections with wire staples. 3 methods...saddle stitching, side stitching, and stabbing.

Whiteness - the measure of the amount of light reflected from a sheet of paper. How white a paper is depends on how evenly it reflects all colors in the visible spectrum. If it reflects more blue than red and yellow, it will have a cool, blue tinge to it, making it appear brighter than white. A cool paper will appear brighter than a similar paper with a warm tinge. A cool or warm tinge doesn’t affect paper quality, but it does create optical impressions. For example, in color printing with blues and blacks predominating, a cool white sheet tends to brighten the colors. But color printing with reds, oranges, and yellows predominating, a neutral or warm white sheet tends to make the colors apprear clearer and stronger. see also brightness, fluorescent dye, refractiveness appear Wire Side the bottom side of the paper that comes in contact with the wire (now called the forming fabric) of the paper machine during the papermaking process. The top side of the paper is called the felt side. As the water drains through the wire during manufacture, it carries fibers, fillers, and other chemicals with it, depositing more of them on the wire side than on the felt side of the paper. This can result in the wire and felt sides having slightly different textures. see also felt side, papermaking, tooth, two-sidedness

Wove Finish - uncoated paper that has an even finish with slight toothiness. See also finish, tooth


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